Artificial insemination is a simple and easy technique which has been used for years in assisted reproduction and consists in transferring sperm – after having been processed in the laboratory – to the uterus with the help of a fine plastic needle.
In most cases women undergo a moderate ovarian stimulation to produce an optimal number of follicles.
Types of artificial insemination
- Artificial insemination with sperm from the partner
- Artificial insemination with donor sperm
Artificial insemination with sperm from the partner
It refers to the application of techniques of artificial insemination where the semen is suitable for fertilisation; however other physiological problems –either on man or woman- hinder achieving fertilisation. This technique is applied in cases of:
- Difficulty to deposit semen into the vagina due to male impotence, vaginismus, abnormalities of the penis (hypospadia), retrograde ejaculation.
- One of the most common causes of retrograde ejaculation is diabetes with neuropathic involvement.
- Toxins in seminal plasma and semen abnormalities, such as oligoasthenospermia.
- Sterility caused by anatomic abnormalities of the cervix, insufficient or inadequate cervical mucus.
- Infertility due to ovulatory dysfunction or endometriosis.
Artificial insemination with donor sperm
Main candidates for this technique based on anonymous sperm donation are same sex marriages, couples with fertility problems and heterosexual single women.
The main difference between these two insemination techniques resides in the semen collection.
Cases in which the insemination with donor sperm is used are as follows:
- Cases with risk of transmitting an inherited disease from parent to child.